The Boston Marriage that Won the Vote for U.S. Women.

Suffragists Carrie Chapman Catt and Mary Garrett Hay cast their first presidential ballots together, November 2, 1920.

Carrie Chapman Catt and Mary Garrett Hay: A Dynamic Duo for Women’s Suffrage

When president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Carrie Chapman Catt (1859–1947) first clapped eyes on Mary “Mollie” Garrett Hay (1857–1928), president of the New York Equal Suffrage League, in 1895, Carrie was five years’ married to her second husband, George Catt. Soon after George’s death in 1905, Carrie would make her home with Mollie. The women would share a common cause and a roof for the next thirty years. As fellow activist Maud Wood Park remarked, “Mrs. Catt was essentially a statesman; Miss Hay, a politician, and together they were, in most cases, invincible.”[i]

A Dream Team

Carrie and Mollie first met in 1895 while attending the NAWSA convention on January 31 to February 5 in Atlanta.[ii] It seems to have been lust at first sight, their courtship the very opposite of a slow burn. That summer, while Carrie’s civil engineer husband, George was away on business, Mollie moved in with Carrie at the Catt apartment[iii] at Osborne Apartment House, №26 West 57th Street. As noted by Mary Peck, Carrie’s official biographer, that summer was the beginning of the “intimate collaboration which united them for many years.”[iv]

George’s return spelled the end of Carrie’s and Mollie’s idyll.[v] What he thought of his wife’s suffrage partner and new bestie remains unclear. Perhaps tellingly, in January 1896, he took time off work to accompany Carrie to the annual NAWSA convention in Washington, DC, where he addressed the assembly on “Utah’s Victory the Result of Organization; Its Lesson.” In calling George to the podium, President Susan B. Anthony said, “It gives me pleasure to introduce Mr. Carrie Chapman Catt… I mean, Mr. George W. Catt.”[vi]

If George’s attendance was an attempt to win back his wife, it was not to be. Throughout the late 1890s, Mollie and Carrie continued to work and travel together, with Mollie acknowledged within the movement as Carrie’s special friend and companion. In 1899, the women visited twenty states, attended fifteen conventions and made fifty-one speeches, a grueling tour de force that covered thirteen thousand miles.[vii]

Undoubtedly, Carrie was the shiny penny of the pair, fawned over by both male and female reporters, one of whom described her as “…a tall, handsome woman with brown hair and blue gray eyes and a gentle yet strong face.”[viii] A gifted orator, she projected her magnetism into a crowded lecture hall with the same easy grace she brought to an intimate at-home in her own parlor.

Carrie Chapman Catt

But Mollie was no shrinking violet. As a dyed in the wool Republican, she won over several politically conservative women’s groups to the suffrage side, notably the Daughters of the American Revolution and the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, an international women’s organization dedicated to community volunteerism with local clubs in every state.[ix] She served as president of the New York Equal Suffrage League for eight years (1910–1918). In 1915, she took over as president of the Woman Suffrage Party (WSP), the umbrella organization for city suffrage groups, which Carrie had founded in 1909. During her tenure as WSP president, she oversaw the enrollment of thousands of women to vote in New York State.[x]

Mary Garrett Hay

A crack fundraiser and dealmaker, Mollie possessed enormous powers of persuasion, a steady determination we today might call “soft power.” Decatur Herald reporter Lillian Gray extolled Mollie’s calm, easy nature and winning ways.

“Others may lose their heads or tempers or fly off on a wild goose chase; she never does. She is a woman with prematurely white hair like a glory round her head, with sparkling dark eyes, flashing white teeth and a merry smile. You will not find a brighter, handsomer, more wholesome woman in a journey across this continent, that journey Mary Garrett Hay herself has taken so many times in the interest of her sex. She has a strong, sincere, energetic voice, the voice of a woman who can make things hum.”[xi]

Not everyone was a fan.

On February 13, 1900, Carrie took over the presidency of NAWSA from the ailing octogenarian Anthony.[xii] (Of the 278 votes cast for president, she received 254[xiii]). The baton was barely passed when NAWSA insiders raised cries of nepotism, going so far as to try and disband the national organization committee Mollie had headed for the past five years. Outwardly unruffled, Mollie carried on as if nothing had changed. Eventually members came to terms with her special role and recognized her as a powerful ally. If one wanted a private audience with Carrie, going through Mollie was the smoothest, most expedient means of achieving it.[xiv]

Death of George

At the same time Carrie was carrying on the affair with Mollie, she continued to present herself and George as an “ideally happy” married couple,[xv] skillfully manipulating press interviews to play up her conventional femininity in demeanor, appearance and likes.[1] In 1900, shortly after she’d assumed the NAWSA presidency, a New York reporter described her thusly:

“The new head of the American suffrage has a personality altogether out of line with the traditional (and false) idea of the woman’s rights woman. She is an ideal hostess, a housekeeper of enviable ability and resources and a cook whose dishes are famous. She is fond of horses, flowers and pretty bric-a-brac.”[xvi]

In February 1904, Carrie relinquished her role as NAWSA president to Dr. Anna Shaw,[xvii] ostensibly to nurse George, a lifelong hemophiliac, and her ailing mother [xviii]. She was almost certainly frustrated with NAWSA factionalism — not all members embraced the tight, top down controls she had imposed — as well as the stymied progress of the suffrage cause. Under her tenure as NAWSA president, no new states had enfranchised women.[xix]

In September 1905, George was in his office in Park Row when excruciating stomach pains struck. A doctor’s examination revealed perforating ulcers of the lower intestine, a highly dangerous condition then as today. Fearful because of his hemophilia, Carrie put off the operation for a month. The procedure, finally performed, was deemed a success, and George came home to the couple’s apartment to recuperate. Hopes for a full recovery were high but after only a few days home, he began hemorrhaging from the surgical site.[xx]

George died Sunday, October 8, 1905. He was just forty-five. In his will, he bequeathed the balance of his fortune, estimated at $350,000, nearly $10 million today,[xxi] to Carrie. A wealthy widow of independent means, Carrie was free to live as she chose. Later that year, she moved Mollie in, that time for good.

A Boston Marriage

As feminist historian Lilian Faderman points out, the fight for female enfranchisement was led largely by women who loved other women. Susan B. Anthony and Emily Gross, Jane Addams and Mary Rozet Smith, and Anna Shaw and Lucy Anthony are but a few of the same-sex couples who found emotional and sexual satisfaction beneath the suffrage banner, their Boston marriages an open secret. Unlike the intimate female friendships chronicled in the passionate epistles of many a Victorian lady, a “Boston marriage” was a committed domestic partnership between two college-educated, self-supporting women whose economic freedom allowed them to make a home together.[xxii]

From 1905 to 1919, Carrie and Mollie lived together in a posh apartment at 257 Central Park West, which Carrie purchased with the monies inherited from George. The more domestic of the pair, Mollie, assumed the household duties, fussing over Carrie when she was overtired or ill and nursing her through sundry illnesses, including a difficult hysterectomy in 1910. She also saw Carrie through a succession of losses: Susan B. Anthony in February 1906; Carrie’s younger brother, William, in September 1907; and her mother, Maria, in December 1907.[xxiii]

The caretaking was not all one-sided, though. According to Peck, Mollie was terrified of thunderstorms. During a storm, Carrie made a point of lighting a candle and holding her close.[xxiv] When she learned of Mollie’s gallbladder problem while away in Egypt during the 1911–1912 world tour, she wrote insisting that she be seen by Dr. Mayne, the family friend and physician who’d tended to George, adding:

“Dear, precious Mollie take best care of yourself for I cannot get on without you… I shall come home and look after you.” [xxv]

Passionate letters exchanged between the two women leave little doubt as to the exuberantly physical side of their relationship. In 1911, on Mollie’s fifty-fourth birthday, which they would spend apart due to Carrie’s global IWSA tour, Carrie wrote, “I’m sorry I couldn’t give you 69 kisses, one for each year.” [emphasis added].[xxvi]

Still, neither Carrie nor Mollie ever publicly identified themselves as lesbian. To do so would have played into their detractors’ hands. Carrie wrote to Mary Peck that she had to “walk…the chalk line to get the vote.”[xxvii] Beyond the need to take cover under convention, applying a strictly binary heterosexual-homosexual labeling to their sometimes shifting romantic and erotic partnerships would have made little sense, a precursor to today’s growing embrace of gender-fluid identities, roles and relationships.[xxviii]

Though the more discreet proprieties of the day precluded public displays of affection, privately Carrie repeatedly referred to Mollie as “my beloved,” “sweetheart,” and “Molly Brown Eyes.” In a letter posted from North Africa, she opined at length about Mollie’s new frock, baby blue and “cut low fore and aft!” which she enjoined her friend to save for her return.[xxix]

Departures and Dalliances

On April 6, 1911, Carrie embarked on a sixteen-month long trip abroad as president of International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA), which she had founded in 1902. She and Mollie were just coming off a three-month stint through Europe, including a spring conference in Stockholm. Mollie, then president of both the New York Federation of Women’s Clubs and the New York Equal Suffrage League, returned to New York. Leaving Mollie behind to hold down the proverbial fort, Carrie set sail for Southampton, England, the first leg of a campaign that would cover Norway, Sweden, South Africa, Egypt, Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), India, Hongkong, the Philippines and China. In South Africa, she met with Mahatma Gandhi, then working as a lawyer and civil rights activist on behalf of South African Indians who, along with Africans, were denied the vote. [xxx]

Such protracted absences would strain most relationships and Carrie’s and Mollie’s was no exception, especially as their union seems to have been monogamous on Mollie’s part only. That Carrie had a roving eye is without question. While abroad, she wrote frequent love letters home while indulging in flirtations with other women. In one overseas letter to Mollie, Carrie’s tenderness is salted with a less than subtle boastfulness. “What worlds of sweethearts I’ve had, all brown-eyed, and only one ever knew it.”[xxxi]

In the course of their shared thirty-three years, Carrie would engage in flirtations and liaisons with numerous other women, mostly suffragists and freethinkers from her and Mollie’s circle including another brown-haired, brown-eyed girl, friend and biographer Mary Peck, whom she nicknamed Pan for her sylph-like figure; Edith Lees Ellis, the openly gay wife of Havelock Ellis; and Mary Jenney Howe (1870–1934), founder of the feminist literary and debating society, the Heterodoxy club, in Greenwich Village. Howe later said of the then fifty-six-year old Carrie, “When she looks at me, my heart comes up in my throat and I can see in her face all she has lived through, and I can refuse her nothing she might ask.”[xxxii]

Moreover, Carrie’s sexual appeal and dynamism, which followed her through her fifties, could be a useful tool in recruiting younger women to the movement, wiles she wielded without apology, often to Mollie’s chagrin.[xxxiii] At the midpoint of their life together, Carrie seems to have chafed against what she saw as Mollie’s possessiveness. In a 1910 letter to Peck, she warned of Mollie’s jealousy, dubbing here “step,” shorthand for “wicked stepmother.” And yet whatever peccadilloes she indulged in, it was to Mollie and New York that she came home time and again.

A World War and a Winning Plan

The advent of World War I signaled an abrupt halt to Carrie’s globetrotting. A 1914 bequest of nearly one million dollars (more than 25 million dollars today) by the late Miriam Leslie, head of the publishing empire founded by her late husband, Frank, gave Carrie the means to further women’s suffrage as she saw fit, unconstrained by any suffrage organization.[xxxiv] She used the windfall to launch The Woman Citizen, formerly the Woman Journal established in the 1870’s by another suffragist couple, Henry Blackwell and Lucy Stone.[xxxv] The magazine would serve as the mouthpiece for the feminist movement until 1931.

In 1915, Carrie turned her efforts to New York. If the Empire State could be brought around to enfranchising women, she reasoned, other eastern holdouts would follow suit. Despite vigorous grassroots campaigning, the suffrage amendment was struck down 4–3. The devastating defeat was compounded by losses in three other eastern states: New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.[xxxvi] To replenish New York’s depleted suffrage coffer, Carrie and Mollie convened a Women Suffrage Party meeting at Cooper Union on November 5, 1915. After a rousing speech by Carrie, choruses of “I’ll give” rang through the auditorium. They raised a $100,000, an astounding sum for a single meeting.[xxxvii]

In December 1915 Carrie returned to helm NAWSA, taking over the presidency from Dr. Anna Shaw[xxxviii] ; meanwhile, Mollie mounted a second Empire State Campaign, sending volunteers door-to-door polling women in nearly every city and town in the state. The persistence paid off. More than one million signatures were gathered, an indisputable majority of New York’s women. On November 6, 1917, seven months after America joined the Great War (World War I), New York became the first eastern state to fully enfranchise women.[xxxix] [xl]

Like her predecessors Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton had during the Civil War, Carrie fell under incredible pressure to table suffrage for the national good. [xli] Learning from their costly mistake, she resisted. Setting aside her lifelong commitment to pacifism, on February 1915 she announced that NAWSA would work for both the war effort and suffrage.[xlii]

In 1916, Carrie launched her “Winning Plan.” Going forward, NAWSA would focus simultaneously on the state-by-state and federal suffrage campaigns, with state victories used as leverage to influence and push through passage of a federal amendment.[xliii]

In the runup to the 1916 presidential election, Carrie and NAWSA succeeded in convincing both Republican and Democratic parties to put women’s suffrage on their platforms, an historical first, with both candidates, Wilson (Democrat) and Hughes (Republican) paying at least lip service to women’s equality.[xliv] On the campaign trail, the incumbent President Wilson addressed the 1916 annual NAWSA convention in Atlantic City where he pledged his support, saying, “I am here to fight with you.”[xlv]

But the next year, Wilson, preoccupied with the war, waffled. At the forty-ninth NAWSA convention in December 1917 in Washington, DC, he sent his Secretary of the Interior, Franklin Lane, in his stead. While Lane assured the women of the president’s continued support, his opaque remarks linking suffrage to women’s wartime civic and workforce contributions provided little in the way of concrete assurance.[xlvi]

In January 1917, a militant splinter group of the NAWSA, the more radical National Women’s Party led by Alice Paul, began posting picketers outside the White House gates, the first ever protests at the presidential mansion.[xlvii] The bold move alienated the mainstream public, with some in the anti-suffrage camp suggesting the NWP protests were financed by German propagandists.[xlviii]

In June, the arrests began. Nearly five hundred silent “Sentinels of Liberty” were taken into custody on the trumped-up charge of obstructing traffic. At first the women were released with fines or with the charges dismissed, but as the picketing persisted into the fall, prison sentences of increasing harshness were handed down.[xlix] [l] On November 14, 1917, thirty-one silent sentinels, including Paul, jailed at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia, endured brutal beatings by guards at the behest of the warden, what would later be recalled as “The Night of Terror.”[li] [lii]

Meanwhile, working steadily behind the scenes, Carrie and Mollie double-teamed the “antis,” with Mollie serving as a principal liaison to the Republican leadership while Carrie wooed President Wilson’s Democratic administration, encouraging him to cast women’s suffrage as a war measure. On September 30, 1918, Wilson finally delivered on his election promise. Upon receiving an “eloquent appeal” from NAWSA[liii], he went before the Senate to petition members of both parties to back the suffrage amendment. By then, the amendment had passed the House of Representatives by a two-thirds vote, but a contingent of southern Democrats stubbornly held out against passage in the Senate.

In his address, the president framed female enfranchisement as a war measure (adopting Carrie’s very language) and described the wartime service of American women in “fervid and stirring terms.”[liv] He reined in the remaining Democratic holdouts with assurances that he would be unable to support the re-nomination or reelection campaigns of any senator who failed to support his war measures, notably female suffrage.[lv] Just as women had stepped up to fill jobs left vacant by the men called to arms, so they must be prepared to take up other previously all-male duties of citizenship, notably voting.

The Battle But Not the War

On June 4, 1919, after more than seventy years of suffragist striving, the federal suffrage bill stating that “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex” passed the U.S. Congress.[lvi] By then, fifteen states, including New York, had granted women full suffrage and more had granted partial suffrage. But the toughest fight, ratification, lay ahead. Two-thirds (36) of the then 48 states must sign off before the Nineteenth Amendment could be added to the Constitution, and most southern states were staunchly in the anti-suffrage camp.[lvii]

Never ones to rest on their laurels, Carrie and Mollie spent fourteen grueling months going state-to-state stumping for ratification. At the same time, the dauntless duo swung their attention to helping women prepare for their long overdue role as fully enfranchised citizens. Between March 25 and 27, 1919, Carrie called for “a League of women voters” at the Statler Hotel in St. Louis.[lviii] The League would launch February 14, 1920, at NAWSA’s 50th anniversary convention in Chicago, with Carrie as honorary LWV president for life, and Mollie as chair of New York City chapter.[lix]

Victory

The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified on August 26, 1920. A beaming Carrie arrived in D.C. directly from the capital of the last of the southern holdout states, Nashville, Tennessee. Tireless, she spent the day in meetings at the Departments of State and Justice before addressing the suffrage mass meeting and jubilee at Poli’s Theater at 8 p.m.[lx]

The next day, it was back to New York — and Mollie. Governor Al Smith and a delegation of suffragists met her at Pennsylvania Station with a bouquet of blue and yellow flowers — the “votes for women” colors — “from the 27,000,000 enfranchised women of the United States.”[lxi] During the evening’s ratification celebration at the Waldorf-Astoria, Carrie would call out for special thanks the suffragist liaisons for both major parties: Mrs. George Bass of Chicago, “a pudding stick that kept the Democratic men stirred up” and Mollie, who had held down the fort with the Republicans.[lxii]

November 2, 1920 witnessed the first presidential election in which the newly enfranchised women could vote. The candidates were both native Ohioans: the incumbent, Warren G. Harding (Republican) and the contender, James M. Cox (Democrat), a two-time governor of the Buckeye state.[lxiii] With the vote secured, Mollie lost no time in registering as a Republican.[lxiv] While neither she nor Carrie made their preferred candidate public, Mollie almost certainly voted for Harding while Carrie, an independent who leaned Democrat, likely voted for Cox.[lxv] The pair arrived at their polling station at 111th Street and Broadway to cast their first ballots in a national presidential election[lxvi] as they’d done nearly everything for the past quarter century.

Together.

Copyright Hope C. Tarr

[1] One is reminded of Hillary Clinton’s chocolate chip cookie debacle during her husband’s 1992 presidential campaign when an off-the-cuff remark about choosing a career over staying at home and baking cookies came back to bite her. As a counter to Republican depictions of her as a dangerous feminist and/or a Lady Macbeth, she sought to soften her image by submitting her chocolate chip cookie recipe to Family Circle magazine in a bakeoff with Barbara Bush. Her cookies won — as did her husband.[1]

[i] Ibid., 65.

[ii] Scott Duniway, Abigail, “She Flies with Her Own Wings. The Collected Speeches of Abigail Scott Duniway. 1834–1915.” http://asduniway.org/national-american-woman-suffrage-association-convention-circa-january-31-february-5-1895/).

[iii] Faderman, 63.

[iv] Peck, Mary Gray, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1944.

[v] Faderman, 63.

[vi] Evening Star, “For the Ballot. Second Day of the Woman Suffrage Association Convention. Mr. Catt Tells of the Work Done in Utah.” January 24, 1896, p. 3.

[vii] Faderman, 64.

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Faderman, 64.

[x] The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, “Mary Garrett Hay’s Watchword to Women in Politics Was: ‘Be Nice to the Men’; Fought for Suffrage from Girlhood,” September 2, 1928, p. 42.

[xi] “Mary Garret Hay’s Watchword to Women in Politics: Be Nice to the Men. Fought for Suffrage from Girlhood,” The Brooklyn Eagle, September 2, 1928, p. 42.

[xii] Independent-Journal, “Carrie Chapman Catt. Miss Anthony’s Successor as President of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association,” March 29, 1900, p. 2.

[xiii] Stanton, Elizabeth Cady; Anthony, Susan Brownell; Gage, Matilda Joslyn and Harper, Ida Husted, The History of Woman Suffrage (volume 3, 1883–1900), 1902, p. 387.

[xiv] Faderman, 64.

[xv] Courier-Post, “Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt,” July 6, 1904, p. 8.

[xvi] Independent-Journal, “Carrie Chapman Catt. Miss Anthony’s Successor as President of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association,” March 29, 1900, p. 2.

[xvii] Buffalo Evening News, “Miss haw is President,” February 17, 1904, p. 3.

[xviii] Faderman, 66.

[xix] Ibid.

[xx] The New York Tribune, Wednesday, October 11, 1905.

[xxi] Ibid.

[xxii] Faderman, 7.

[xxiii] Women in History Ohio. http://www.womeninhistoryohio.com/carrie-chapman-catt.html

[xxiv] Peck

[xxv] Faderman, 76.

[xxvi] Ibid., 72.

[xxvii] Faderman, 69.

[xxviii] Ibid., 3.

[xxix] Ibid., 76.

[xxx] Evening Star, “Defrays Her Own Expenses on a Round-the-World Tour for Woman Suffrage,” June 23, 1912, Washington DC. p. 55.

[xxxi] Ibid, 75.

[xxxii] Ibid., 66.

[xxxiii] Peck

[xxxiv] The Washington Post, “Attack Suffrage Gift. Claimants Begin Suit for Share of Mrs. Leslie’s Estate. Bequest Left by Publisher’s Widow to Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt to Help Votes-for-Women Cause.” Dec 13, 1914, p. 9.

[xxxv] The Buffalo Times, “The Woman Citizen Teaches New Voters,” October 22, 1926, p. 15

[xxxvi] Wilkes-Barre Semi-Weekly Record, “Suffragettes Swamped by Avalanche of Ballots. Their Cause Goes Down in Defeat All Along the Line,” p. 7.

[xxxvii] Middletown Times-Press, “Suffragists Launch New Vote Fight,” November 5, 1915, p. 7.

[xxxviii] Altoona Tribune, “Suffragists Close Eventful Meeting,” December 20, 1915, p. 1.

[xxxix] Corrice, Julia, Susan Goodier and Sally Roesch Wagner. “Recognizing Women’s Right to Vote in New York State,” New York Heritage Digital Collections, May 14, 2018. https://nyheritage.org/exhibits/recognizing-womens-right-vote-new-york-state.

[xl] Cooney, Robert P.J., Winning the Vote: The Triumph of the American Woman Suffrage Movement, Amer Graphic Print, 2005.

[xli] Stanton, Elizabeth Cady; Anthony, Susan Brownell; Gage, Matilda Joslyn and Harper, Ida Husted, The History of Woman Suffrage (volume 2, 1861–1876), 1882, pp. 87–89.

[xlii] Gerber, Matthew G., “Agitation in Amsterdam: The International Dimension of Carrie Chapman Catt’s Suffrage Rhetoric,” Speaker & Gavel, 53(1), pp. 10–11.

[xliii] Lewis, Susan Ingalls, “Women Win the Right to Vote in New York State,” November 6, 2013, https://sites.newpaltz.edu/nyrediscovered/2013/11/06/women-win-the-vote

[xliv] Etz, Anna Cadogan, Press and Sun-Bulletin, “Suffrage News,” August 25, 1916, p. 12.

[xlv] The Journal-Gazette, September 14, 1916, p. 2.

[xlvi] The Washington Post, “Lane Favors Suffrage. Secretary Tells Women Equal Rights Not to Be Denied,” December 14, 1917, p. 4.

[xlvii] The Washington Times, “Book Advertising Wins Wilson Smile. Picketing Suffragists Use Quotations from The New Freedom” on Banners. January 28, 1917, p. 7.

[xlviii] The Washington Post, “’Suffs’ War Menace. Authorities So Assert and Move to Meet ‘Forceful’ Tactics,” June 30, 1917, p. 2.

[xlix] Pruitt, Sarah, “The Night of Terror: When Suffragists Were Imprisoned and Tortured in 1917,” History.com, March 4, 2019, https://www.history.com/news/night-terror-brutality-suffragists-19th-amendment.

[l] Stevens, 101–112.

[li] Pruitt, https://www.history.com/news/night-terror-brutality-suffragists-19th-amendment.

[lii] Stevens, 196–199.

[liii] Lawrence, David, “Plea for Suffrage Has World Phase. President Puts into Effect Words of His Historic New York Speech. Seen as War Measure.” Evening Star, December 30, 1918, p. 2.

[liv] Ibid.

[lv] Ibid.

[lvi] Women’s Rights National Historic Park, https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/women-suffrage-history-timeline.htm

[lvii] Faderman, 69.

[lviii] The St. Louis Star and Times, “Suffragists to Retain Present Organization. ‘League of Women Voters’ Composed of Delegate from Franchise States, to be Auxiliary to Older Body,” March 27, 1919, p. 1.

[lix] Indianapolis News, “Suffrage Leader Dies. Miss Mary Garett Hay Was Prominent in G.O.P. Politics.” August 31, 1928, p. 8.

[lx] The Washington Times, “DC Ready for ‘Suff” Jubilee. Mrs. Catt Arrives in Capital to Address Poli’s Celebration Tonight,” p. 13.

[lxi] Evening Star, “Suffragists Hail Victory as Anti’s Launch New Fight.” August 27, 1920, p. 1.

[lxii] New York Herald, “Women Celebrate Suffrage Victory. Governor Waits an Hour for Delayed Train to Greet Mrs. Catt, Leader.” August 28, 1920, p. 2.

[lxiii] Daily News, “Women in the Voting Lines for the First Time Feature Presidential Election,” November 3, 1920 p. 30.

[lxiv] The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 2, 1928, 42.

[lxv] The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 2, 1928, 42.

[lxvi] St. Louis Post Dispatch, “Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt and Miss Mary Garrett Hay, Suffrage Workers” (Photo Caption), November 5, 1920, p. 23.

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Hope C. Tarr

Author of 25 novels and 4 screenplays. Tarr’s stories have appeared in THE IRISH TIMES, BALTIMORE MAGAZINE and more. Ph.D. from Catholic U. www.hopectarr.com.